Perito Moreno: A Surprising Microcosm Of Quality Guiding

by Paul Kirtley

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four people walking amongst serac on Perito Moreno glacier

Hiking on the Perito Moreno glacier. Photo: Paul Kirtley

The Andes are the longest mountain range in the world, stretching 7,000 km (4,350 miles) down through South America. Glaciers are scattered along the length of the chain and some of the accumulations of ice are significant on a global scale.

Covering an area of over 12,300 km2 (4,700 sq miles), the Southern Patagonia Ice Field is the world’s second largest single ice field outside the polar regions.

Accumulation of snow is due to the strongly oceanic climate of southern Chile, with prevailing westerly winds and storms coming off the Pacific Ocean, hitting the Andes and creating a high level of precipitation, both in terms of total amount and number of days per year. Glaciologists estimate it takes 8-10 years for this snow to form into solid ice.

The ice then flows downhill off the edges of the ice field like dry rivers.  Some of the ice flows west, into Chile’s fjords on the Pacific Ocean.  Some of the ice flows east, feeding Argentina’s Lake Viedma and Lake Argentino, the waters of which ultimately reach the Atlantic ocean via the Santa Cruz river.

Lake Argentino vista from Glacarium

Lake Argentino, fed by glacial water. Photo: Paul Kirtley.

Glaciar Perito Moreno

Named in honour of Francisco Pascasio Moreno, an outstanding Argentine explorer and naturalist who played a major role in exploring this area of Patagonia in the 19th Century, as well as defining borders with Chile, the Perito Moreno glacier sits in the southern section of Los Glaciares Parque Nacional.

Glaciar Perito Moreno is something of an oddity in that it is a stable glacier while others around it (such as Upsala) are receding visibly year by year. By contrast, Perito Moreno has not changed in size significantly in the last 90 years. Along with only a small number of other glaciers in the Andes, Perito Moreno appears to remain in equilibrium, while most glaciers have been receding since the mid 1800’s, and rapidly so since the 1980s.

Perito Moreno glacier.

The Perito Moreno glacier is relatively stable. Despite being 30km (19 miles) long, it fluctuated by only 400 metres (1,300 ft) at its terminus between 1947 and 2010 and is currently extended right across Canal de los Tempanos. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Perito Moreno glacier has not been without other threats, though. The controversial plans for a massive hydro-electric scheme downstream of the glacier have raised concerns over the potential effects on the glacier itself, specifically due to potentially more variable water levels in Lake Argentino.

That the authorities here would risk the glacier along with the surrounding wilderness areas with such a scheme is all the more surprising, even just from an economic perspective, given its significance within Argentine tourism. It is the most visited glacier in the park and has become one of the most important tourist attractions in Patagonia.

Moreover, Perito Moreno is considered one of the most beautiful glaciers in the world and Los Glaciares National Park in which the glacier sits, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The potential damming of the Santa Cruz river is the subject of a documentary The Last Explorers On The Rio Santa Cruz, made by Leon McCarron and Tom Allen, who were guests on episode 9 of my podcast.

As well as the natural beauty of the park and the glacier, its popularity is due in part to relatively easy accessibility. Plus the glacier moves quickly (2 metres per day at the glacier centre line) and so, has many calving events.

The glacier is also famous for periodically blocking the flow of water through the Canal de los Tempanos which connects Brazo Rico with the main body of Lago Argentario.

Since earlier in the 20th century, the glacier has often advanced to be in contact with the Magellan peninsular.

When the glacier reaches the peninsula, it splits the lake. The main section of the lake drains into the Santa Cruz river, and ultimately the Atlantic. The section of the lake on the other side of the glacier (Brazo Rico) drains into the main section.  So the glacier effectively forms a dam, splitting Lake Argentino and, when it does, water on the Brazo Rico side starts to rise. When we visited, the water in Brazo Rico was 2 metres (6 feet) higher than the other side.

Eventually, the water erodes the ice where the glacier meets the land and the lake levels equalise. An arch of ice is often created, with the water flowing underneath. In the recent past, it has ruptured every 4-5 years. In 1966 the water rose an incredible 27 metres above normal before the ice was breached.

Where Perito Moreno splits Lake Argentino

When the glacier advances sufficiently across the channel to meet the peninsular opposite, it effectively splits Lake Argentino and prevents water progressing from Brazo Rico, which you can just see beyond the ice in this picture. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Visiting Perito Moreno Glacier

Visiting the glacier is straightforward.  Several companies offer day trips from El Calafate, about 1.5 hours bus journey away.  It’s also possible to book walking tours on the glacier as part of the visit – either a short (90 minute) or longer (4 hours) walk.

There is a visitor centre near the glacier, on the peninsular. Walkways have been constructed to limit erosion on the hillside opposite the glacier, as well as to provide a safe vantage point from which to view the glacier.

Walkways at Perito Moreno

Extensive walk ways have been constructed to limit erosion as well as for reasons of safety. Photo: Paul Kirtley.

The guard rails also prevent people getting too close to the glacier, or even the shores of the lake.  In the past a significant number of people have been killed at the site due to falling ice, either directly or due to dangerous waves hitting the shore as ice falls into the water.

Sign at Perito Moreno glacier giving the statistic of 32 deaths due to materials falling from the glacier in the period 1968-88.

Sign giving the statistic of 32 deaths due to materials falling from the glacier in the period 1968-88. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Colossal Mass, Up Close

When you see the glacier at first it is difficult to gauge the scale of what you are viewing.

At the terminus of the glacier, there is about 70 metres (230ft) of ice above the water.  You better appreciate this scale when you see a boat approaching the ice.  What you still can’t see, however, is that there is another 100 metres (330 ft) of ice below the surface of the water.

View of Perito Moreno glacier from approach road

First good view of the glacier along the approach road. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Perito Moreno glacier and boat

The scale of the glacier is more apparent as it dwarfs an approaching boat. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Given the popularity of the glacier as a tourist attraction, we had expected the visit to busy, in particular the walkways directly in front of the glacier’s snout.

Rather than just visiting the walkways, we’d booked onto the short walking tour on the glacier.  Including the bus journey from El Calafate and back, this is a full day’s excursion. We had wanted to take the longer walking tour (less time on the walkways and more time on the glacier) but even though we attempted to book in advance, there was no availability when we were there. So, we booked onto the shorter walk.

On entering the national park, there is a fee to pay. This is in addition to the cost of your tour. The bus stops here and National Parks officials board the bus for everyone on board to pay. Then the bus proceeds along the increasingly winding road to its end, opposite the glacier’s terminus.

Bus interior with Parque Nacional Los Glaciares officials taking payment of park fees

National Park officials board the bus for the payment of park entry fees. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Parque Nacional Los Glaciares Entry Ticket

The park entry fee was A$260 each. If you visit, make sure you have some cash on you. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Arriving at the visitor centre, it certainly was busy, with lots of people milling around.  Before we disembarked from the bus a tour guide came on board the bus to inform us she would meet us outside the centre in 10 minutes.  This gave people the chance to grab a coffee or have a quick toilet break at the centre. It also added to the throng of people already milling around.

Visitor Centre Perito Moreno

The visitor centre. Photo: Paul Kirtley.

Throng of visitors outside the Perito Moreno visitor centre

Busy with tourists from many countries outside the Perito Moreno visitor centre. Photo: Paul Kirtley

The tour guide then walked us down towards the walkways and the glacier.  We stopped at a map and she explained the different routes we could take and the time it was likely to take us. There was another group being briefed nearby and it was hard to hear the tour guide. We then had 90 minutes before we’d be picked up to be taken for the walking tour on the glacier.

tour guide explaining the walk ways at Perito Moreno glacier using large map on site

Hard to hear: the walkways being explained. Photo: Paul Kirtley

We then wandered the board walks, taking photographs and trying to find a relatively quiet spot to listen to the glacier. It was periodically creaking and cracking. Sometimes some ice would fall into the water with a roar.

Most visitors seemed oblivious to this though and there was incessant chatter pretty much everywhere we went on the walkways.  Worst were a group of American college students who were very noisy indeed. They definitely hadn’t interpreted the sign which said “Enjoy nature’s sounds” in the same way we had.

Sign at Perito Moreno glacier

All good advice, including “Enjoy Nature’s Sounds”. Photo: Paul Kirtley.

Perito Moreno glacier stairs

Descending towards closer vantage points. Photo: Paul Kirtley.

Busy walk ways at Perito Moreno.

Busy walk ways. Photo: Paul Kirtley

ground erosion at Perito Moreno viewing area

Scars still remain from the pre-walkway days. Photo: Paul Kirtley

A busy viewing platform in front of the Perito Moreno glacier.

What a fantastic school trip for these youngsters! Photo: Paul Kirtley

Perito Moreno glacier.

It’s almost incredible to imagine that this mass of ice is moving towards you, imperceptibly slowly. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Eventually, we swung out from the central section of viewing areas on a longer route and found some peace and quiet. Here we could properly hear the sounds coming from the glacier and gain some palpable sense of the colossal forces invoked by the literally glacial movement of the mass of ice before us.

walkways at Perito Moreno

Quieter walkways. Photo: Paul Kirtley.

Snout of Perito Moreno

Creaks, cracks and groans were regularly emanating from this icy colossus. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Here we could also hear the calls of local passerine birds flitting around the trees and shrubs, which consisted largely of Calafate, Berberis microphylla, Notro, Embothrium coccineum and Lenga, Nothofagus pumilio, relatively common species here but ones I was still familiarising myself with at this stage of our trip in Patagonia.

Southern beech leaves

Leaves of Lenga, a southern beech. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Vibrant red flowers of the chilean firebush

The vibrant red flowers of Notro, the Chilean Firebush. Photo: Paul Kirtley.

Thorny example of Calafate, box-leaved barberry

The thorny, box-leaved barberry, known locally as Calafate. Photo: Paul Kirtley

So this time was a nice pause in what was otherwise a day of many crowds.  Also, present in the Lengas in this section of our wanderings on the boardwalks was what I thought was a mistletoe-like growth on some of the trees, which did in fact prove to be Misodendrum punctulatum. There was also plenty of “old man’s beard” Usnea lichens, a testament to the purity of the air here.

Misodendrum punctulatum in amongst the leaves of Nothofagus pumilio

A type of mistletoe, Misodendrum punctulatum, spotted amongs the Lenga leaves. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Old Man's Beard lichen on Southern Beech trees.

Old man’s beard lichen on some of the trees – a testament to the purity of the air. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Walking On Perito Moreno

We met our coach again outside the visitor centre and were taken a short drive down to a dock where a couple of boats were moored. We disembarked and queued up to board one of them in order to cross the Brazo Rico, the other side of which marked the start of our walk.

Boats moored at jetty in Brazo Rico

Boats to transfer us across Brazo Rico. Photo: Paul Kirtley

People on a boat heading towards Pareto Moreno glacier

Heading out towards the glacier. Photo: Paul Kirtley

people standing on the rear deck of a boat taking photographs

The most photographed glacier in Patagonia? Photo: Paul Kirtley

Many people on deck of a boat taking photographs of a glacier, causing the boat to lean towards the glacier

There is some distortion in the edges of this photo as I was using a very wide lens for this shot. But even so, the boat was definitely leaning… Photo: Paul Kirtley

Side of a glacier and water

The edge of the glacier facing the upper part of the lake reminded me of a castle wall. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Small icebergs in water

Small icebergs floating around in the bay. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Boat moored in front of Perito Moreno glacier

Disembarking after the short journey, we headed up the hill a little way, where we were separated into an English speaking group and a Spanish speaking group. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Hielo y Aventura guide briefing a group

After dividing into two language groups, one of the guides provided a quick initial briefing. Photo: Paul Kirtley

People walking single file along a wooden boardwalk amongst Southern Beech trees

We then followed along a boardwalk section of trail through the periphery of a Southern Beech forest. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Beach near a glacier and lake

The short forest trail soon descended onto a gravel beach, where we were again gathered together for another briefing. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Guide making a presentation on the Perito Moreno glacier, which is in the background

On the gravel beach, there was a short but fact-filled presentation with information on the glacier, local weather and the Southern Patagonian Ice Field. Note the cluster of small huts on the rock outcrop below the glacier (about half way between the two people in the picture) – this was the crampon fitting station, where we headed next. Photo: Paul Kirtley

People sitting in a hut fitting crampons

When we reached the huts, they were a hive of activity with many guides deftly fitting crampons to the feet of guests. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Crampon fitting near to a glacier

The outside crampon fitting station had a better view. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Universal crampons

The somewhat industrial-looking yet effective crampons. Not quite as refined as my Grivel G12s… Photo: Paul Kirtley.

Argentinian flag flying in front of Perito Moreno glacier

While it was still sunny, the sky was filling up with cloud further back. There was a reasonable breeze too. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Our English-speaking group was split further into three groups. Each of these groups was assigned two guides to take them onto the ice and each group headed off to a different area in the same vicintiy of the glacier. We walked a little way further up the lateral moraine then headed up onto the ice itself.

Before we did so, though, we congregated just off the ice and our guide explained a few safety points such as the necessity of wearing gloves to protect hands from sharp ice, as well as giving a practical demonstration of how we should walk while wearing crampons. It was all relatively basic but thorough and provided everyone in the group with the necessary knowledge to negotiate the short hike.

Heading onto the ice on the Perito Moreno glacier

Our group congregating on the sandy edge of the lateral moraine before heading onto the ice. Another group was just ahead of us. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Guide addressing a group on the Perito Moreno glacier

Once up the first short but relatively steep section onto the glacier, our guide stopped to explain a few more things. Photo: Paul Kirtley.

Perito Moreno glacier guide

Our guide explaining some elements of how we were to walk on the ice – single file, follow his route, no photography while moving but there would be regular photo stops. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Trekking on glacier

We trekked down the glacier a little way before turning and heading further up and onto the glacier. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Perito Moreno guide cutting steps with an ice axe

Our guides decided to diverge from an existing trail and cut steps in places to to make ascent or descent, as is the case here, a little easier. Photo: Paul Kirtley

A group out on the ice of Perito Moreno

Another group in the distance. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Blue crack in  glacier

There are many cracks and holes in the glacier. The blue colour you see is due to the varying penetration into the ice of different wavelengths of light. Blue light is absorbed less than other colours, so the ice appears blue. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Guide explaining features of glacier to a group on Perito Moreno

Our guide stopped regularly to explain various features of the glacier. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Serac on Perito Moreno

We headed uphill towards a more complex and rugged area. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Water On, Through And Under The Glacier

Perito Moreno is a warm or temperate glacier. A practical effect of this is that there is water flowing on the surface of the glacier.

The lake below Perito Moreno is actually only 180m above sea level. The ice in the glacier was orignally formed up in the mountains between Chile and Argentina at around 2,000m above sea level.

Where we walked the glacier is around 200m (650 ft) thick, while at its centre the glacier is estimated to be around 700m (2,300 ft) thick.

Water flowing on the surface finds its way into cracks and glacier mills or moulins, which carry melt water from the surface of the glacier.

Some of this water can find its way to the base of the glacier, where it acts as a lubricant between the glacier and the rock underneath.

Despite this, there remains a lot of pressure and grinding of rocks under the ice. The rocks are pulverised – literally turned to dust – the resultant “rock flour” is a very thin and light dust. This dust, suspended in water makes it cloudy and gives glacially-fed lakes and rivers their distinctive milky appearance.

Glacier trekkers pass water on Perito Moreno

Perito Moreno is a temperate glacier and so has water present and flowing on its surface. Photo: Paul Kirtley

A water filled fissure in the ice of the glacier

A water-filled fissure in the ice. In places we stopped to drink the water. It was cold but very refreshing. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Quality Guiding On Perito Moreno

The two guides we had were very good. I have a number of outdoor leadership certifications and I’m always interested to observe other outdoor leaders and guides at work. There’s real scope for learning and gaining a different perspective, particularly if the activity is different to your day-to-day outdoor leadership, either in terms of activity or environment. I was enjoying watching the individual leaders here as well as how the whole organisation worked to manage a large throughput of guests.

Specifically, our guides always put themselves in useful positions. They were always very helpful, never showing off in any way. The main guide, who gave us all of our briefings and talks while on the glacier hike interspersed the factual points with light humour. I particularly liked his wry comment that serac is a French word which means serac”.

They also kept control and didn’t compromise with respect to points of safety. Our guide reprimanded a few young men who clearly hadn’t listened to the initial briefing about walking in single file and not cutting corners. But he did it politely and fairly.

Most of the time the main guide led from the front and the second guide variously stayed back or ran ahead to help people on steep sections or steps. At other times, they put themselves between the group and larger objective dangers such as steep slopes.

On one occasion they both stopped and put themselves between the group’s route and a crevasse, one of them first clearing a nearby trip hazard with his ice axe. Here, Amanda and I were at the front of the group and our main guide asked us to walk as far as a particular point then stop to wait for him. This point was in view of where he was, before a dip where we would not have been visible. In doing this, the guides kept everyone in their sight.

Moreover, none of these leadership decisions were made in any sort of showy way. I only noticed them because I noticed parallels with principles such as position of maximum usefulness in the acronym CLAP as well as some principles from the Mountain Leader Award.

Perito Moreno guides leading at the front of the group

Most of the time our guides led from the front. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Guiding on the Perito Moreno

Other times the guides put themselves between the group and the largest objective hazard. Here, for example, the two guides are in the middle of the picture between hikers and one of the larger crevasses we passed. Photo: Paul Kirtley.

Glaciar Perito Moreno cloudy day for ice trekking

Here one of the guides waits at the top of a steep section to help members of the group if necessary. Note the weather was closing in. It had started to rain at this point. Brazo Rico in the distance. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Our main guide did a great job of adding an educational element to our walk, regularly stopping to point out and explain various features of the glacier or ice.

One such feature was what he referred to as “cryo cones”, more fully described as cryoconite holes. Cryoconite is windblown debris on the surface of the glacier and cryconite holes are caused by the differential heating and cooling of this material vs the ice.

Dark objects absorb more radiation than the surrounding ice and heat up, melting the ice beneath them at a faster rate. Dirt and small bits of sediment result in narrow pockets, bigger rocks, stones and pebbles can form bigger holes. Even leaves blown from trees and carried by the wind onto the glacier can form these holes.

Cryoconite holes in the glacial ice

One of the features we stopped to look at were cryconite holes. Photo Paul Kirtley.

Heading down the glacier.

Before long, we were headed back down. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Perito Moreno guide pouring drinks into ice-filled glasses

But a nice surprise was to drop down to a small drinks station, where some local whisky was served with very local glacial ice. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Glass with whisky and glacial ice with out of focus glacier in the background

Cheers! Photo: Paul Kirtley

Perito Moreno with cloud and rain

The weather was turning very murky but provided some atmospheric views of the glacier as we headed back towards the boat. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Lenga forest near Perito Moreno

After dropping our crampons at the crampon fitting station, we all returned individually to the cabins near the boat dock. Despite the rain, it was a pleasant meander back through the Southern Beech forest. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Tourists walking down a gravel track on a hill to the edge of a lake near a glacier

After a short wait, sheltering from the rain at the cabins on the edge of the trees, it was back down the hill to the boat dock. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Perito Moreno Glacier Visit – A Worthwhile Experience

I’m not normally a fan of packaged cookie-cutter tourism, particularly when it comes to outdoor activities and experiencing nature. I also tend to avoid tourist honeypots, at least when they are busy (I’d rather go to the summit of Snowdon in winter than in the middle of summer, for example). Call me slightly misanthropic if you will, but that’s just what I prefer.

Perito Moreno is unique, though, and it’s very difficult to visit the glacier in any other way than tramping the public walkways or using the only company which seems to have permission to lead hikes on the actual glacier.

Ultimately, the infrastructure and organisation around the glacier make it accessible to many folk yet minimises localised environmental degradation by making use of steel walkways and wooden board walks. While personally I would have preferred to undertake the longer, more involved glacier walk, I can’t deny the shorter, more moderate walk does allow people with no mountaineering or glacier travel experience to have a taste of walking on the ice.

A group of inexperienced people trekking on a glacier

These short hikes allow people with no mountaineering or glacier travel experience to have a taste of walking on the ice. Photo: Paul Kirtley

Moreover, Patagonia is a land of packages and fixed itinerary tours. I’ve never been anywhere like it in this respect. I’m used to being a lot more independent when making journeys, even day hikes. We did a better job of suiting ourselves when we headed further north after a spell of being based in El Calafate.

Despite some prior apprehension, I have to say the trip on Perito Moreno was well-run right from our pick up in El Calafate to managing our group to be in the right place at the right time during the day (without being heavy-handed), through to making sure we were on the right transport back to El Calafate.

It was seemingly relaxed yet slick. Plus it was interesting from a professional standpoint to experience the collective organisation and systems in place, which handled a high throughput of visitors, as well as observe how the individual guides on the glacier conducted themselves even though their groups were relatively large and there was little time available to build up any rapport.

It certainly provided me with food for thought with respect to my own business. It would have been good for some of my team at Frontier Bushcraft to have observed all of this too.

Related Material On Paul Kirtley’s Blog

Laguna de los Tres and Rio Blanco Circuit: Hiking An Iconic Landscape

The 10-Minute Talk That Protects A National Park

PK Podcast 009: Leon McCarron & Tom Allen On Making Meaningful Journeys, Off The Beaten Track

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Paul Kirtley is an award-winning professional bushcraft instructor. He is passionate about nature and wilderness travel. In addition to writing this blog Paul owns and runs Frontier Bushcraft, a wilderness bushcraft school, offering bushcraft courses and wilderness expeditions.


{ 3 comments… read them below or add one }

David. Fiorini

Hi Paul!
Thank you so much for posting those incredible pics. What a wonderful trip that must have been! Thanks for sharing!
All the best to you during new year


Paul Kirtley

You’re very welcome David 🙂

Happy New Year!

Warm regards,



Jake Rowland

Hi Paul,

Really interesting article! I am currently building up my QMD’s before I do my summer ML training and your article provides some really thought provoking insights into good leadership and what it looks like. I was particularly interested how the two guides worked together to lead the group and by the ‘non-showy’ way they made their decisions and communicated these with the group. Thanks again for a great article.

Best Wishes



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